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Antigens, Differentiation Definition: Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.
differentiation antigen Definition: antigens normally only seen at particular phases of differentiation of a cell type.
Differentiation Antigen Definition: Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.
Biological Markers Definition: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
biomarker Definition: a biological, physiological, behavioral, or molecular indicator of a process, disease, or system; e.g., fish mortality and pollution, behavioral changes and alcoholism, neuroendocrine system changes and aging.
marker Definition: A diagnostic indication that disease may develop.
Biomarker Definition: A characteristic that is objectively measured and evaluated as an indicator of normal biologic processes, pathogenic processes, or pharmacologic responses to a therapeutic intervention. (From: FDA Guidance for Industry: Pharmacogenomic Data Submissions.)
Biomarker Definition: A variation in cellular or biochemical components or processes, structures, or functions that is objectively measurable in a biological system and that characterizes normal biologic processes, pathogenic processes, an organism's state of health or disease, likelihood of developing a disease, prognosis, or response to a particular therapeutic intervention. Biomarkers include but not limited to such phenotypic parameters as specific enzyme or hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype, presence or absence of biological substances.
Genetic Markers Definition: A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.
genetic markers Definition: Alterations in DNA that may indicate an increased risk of developing a specific disease or disorder.
Genetic Marker Definition: A segment of DNA with an identifiable physical location on a chromosome and whose inheritance can be followed.
tumor marker Definition: A substance sometimes found in an increased amount in the blood, other body fluids, or tissues and which may mean that a certain type of cancer is in the body. Examples of tumor markers include CA 125 (ovarian cancer), CA 15-3 (breast cancer), CEA (ovarian, lung, breast, pancreas, and gastrointestinal tract cancers), and PSA (prostate cancer). Also called biomarker.
Tumor Marker Definition: A substance present in or produced by a tumor or by the host, that can be used for differentiating neoplastic from normal tissue based on measurements in body fluids, secretions, cells, and/or tissues. Markers are used in diagnosis, staging and prognosis of cancer, provide an estimation of tumor burden, and serve for monitoring effects of therapy, detecting recurrence, localization of tumors, and screening in general populations.
Tumor Markers, Biological Definition: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.
Markers, Bone Definition: Writing instruments (e.g., pencils) for marking bone tissue during surgery.
MARKER, OCULAR Definition: An ophthalmic surgical marker is a device intended to mark by use of ink, dye, or indentation the location of ocular or scleral surgical manipulation.
MARKER, SKIN Definition: A skin marker is a pen-like device intended to be used to write on the patient's skin, e.g., to outline surgical incision sites or mark anatomical sites for accurate blood pressure measurement.
Markers, Skin Definition: Devices intended to be used to write on the patient's skin, e.g., to outline surgical incision sites or mark anatomical sites for accurate blood pressure measurement.
MARKER, SCLERA Definition: An ophthalmic surgical marker is a device intended to mark by use of ink, dye, or indentation the location of ocular or scleral surgical manipulation.
genetic marker Definition: any allele of interest, whose phenotype expression is usually easily discerned, used to identify an individual or a cell that carries it, or as a probe to mark a chromosome or locus.
Reagents, Immunoassay, Calibration, Cardiac Marker Definition: Reagents intended to establish points of reference (i.e., calibrate) in immunoassay tests performed to determine substances liberated from the myocardium into the plasma (i.e., cardiac markers). These reagents may be either specific for calibration of a cardiac marker, or more frequently, appropriate to calibrate a whole set of similar cardiac markers.
Reagents, Immunoassay, Calibration, Tumor Marker Definition: Reagents intended to establish points of reference (i.e., calibrate) in immunoassay tests performed to determine substances present in or secreted by neoplastic tumor cells (i.e., tumor markers) that may be found in cells, tissues, or body fluids. These reagents may be either specific for calibration of a tumor marker or, more frequently, appropriate to calibrate a whole set of similar tumor markers.
Reagents, Immunoassay, Control, Cardiac Marker Definition: Reagents consisting of substances of known concentrations that are assayed by the usual clinical laboratory methods and that resemble the unknown specimen; they are used for quality control of immunoassay tests performed for the determination of substances (i.e., cardiac markers) liberated from the myocardium into the plasma. These reagents may be either specific for quality control of a cardiac marker or, more frequently, appropriate for control of a whole set of similar cardiac markers.
Reagents, Immunoassay, Control, Tumor Marker Definition: Reagents consisting of substances of known concentrations that are assayed by the usual clinical laboratory methods and that resemble the unknown specimen; they are used for quality control of immunoassay tests performed for the determination of substances present in or secreted by neoplastic tumor cells (i.e. tumor markers) that may be found in cells, tissues, or body fluids. These reagents may be either specific for quality control of a tumor marker or, more frequently, appropriate for control of a whole set of similar tumor markers (e.g., enzymes, hormones, carbohydrate antigens).
Disease Marker Definition: Specific molecular signature of disease, physiological measurement, genotype structural or functional characteristic, metabolic changes, or other determinant that may simplify the diagnostic process, make diagnoses more accurate, distinguish different causes of disease, or enable physicians to make diagnoses before symptoms appear and to track disease progression.
Risk Marker Definition: A characteristic that indicates the risk of developing a disease.
Microsatellite Repeats Definition: A variety of simple di- (DINUCLEOTIDE REPEATS), tri- (TRINUCLEOTIDE REPEATS), tetra-, and pentanucleotide tandem repeats (usually less than 100 bases long). They are dispersed in the euchromatic arms of most chromosomes. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).
Microsatellite Repeat Definition: A variety of simple di- , tri- , tetra-, and pentanucleotide tandem repeats that are dispersed in the euchromatic arms of most chromosomes.
Short Tandem Repeat Definition: Area of repetitive DNA within the genome consisting of multiple, end-to-end copies of a short DNA sequence usually comprised of di-, tri-, or tetranucleotide repeat units.
Biomarkers, Pharmacological Definition: Measurable biological parameters that serve for drug development, safety and dosing (DRUG MONITORING).
Markers Definition: Devices used to make marks that allow measurement or identification.