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However, for workers within the same census tract, variations were observed in the partial exposure estimates associated with time spent outside the residential census tract.

Eleanor M Setton et al.

International Journal of Health Geographics 7 (7), 18 Jul 2008

Simulation modeling shows that some workers may have exposures 1.3 times higher than other workers residing in the same census tract because of time spent away from the residential census tract, and that time spent in work census tracts contributes most to the differences in exposure.

Eleanor M Setton et al.

International Journal of Health Geographics 7 (7), 18 Jul 2008

The results suggest that while time spent in the home indoor microenvironment contributes most to between-census tract variation in estimates of annual average exposures to traffic-related NO 2 , time spent in the work indoor microenvironment contributes most to within-census tract variation, and time spent in transit by vehicle makes a negligible contribution.

Eleanor M Setton et al.

International Journal of Health Geographics 7 (7), 18 Jul 2008

In the SESM, this same pool of time-activity patterns is used for the simulation in each census tract, thus controlling for variation due to demographic differences.

Eleanor M Setton et al.

International Journal of Health Geographics 7 (7), 18 Jul 2008

2) Work flow data for all people aged 15 and over reporting employment, based on a 20 percent sample in each census tract on May 15 th , 2001, were purchased from Statistics Canada.

Eleanor M Setton et al.

International Journal of Health Geographics 7 (7), 18 Jul 2008

For each census tract, the numbers of workers going from the census tract of their residence to another census tract in the study area for work were used to develop frequency-weighted work pair lists (distributions) for use in the SESM.

Eleanor M Setton et al.

International Journal of Health Geographics 7 (7), 18 Jul 2008

Workers who had a place of employment within the census tract of their residence were excluded, as were workers who had a place of employment outside the GVRD study area.

Eleanor M Setton et al.

International Journal of Health Geographics 7 (7), 18 Jul 2008

The patterns of missing census tract identifiers for the cases were examined by generalized linear regression models.

M Norman Oliver et al.

International Journal of Health Geographics 4 (7), 10 Nov 2005

Cluster maps showed patterns that appeared markedly different, depending upon whether one used all cases or those geocoded to the census tract.

M Norman Oliver et al.

International Journal of Health Geographics 4 (7), 10 Nov 2005

Statistically significant associations were found only at the census tract level, disappearing when the analyses were conducted at the county level.

M Norman Oliver et al.

International Journal of Health Geographics 4 (7), 10 Nov 2005

We sought to discern whether the differences we noted at the census-tract level analysis were real or simply an example of the modifiable areal unit problem (MAUP) [ 20 ], in which one obtains different results and inferences when the same set of data is grouped in different sized areal units.

M Norman Oliver et al.

International Journal of Health Geographics 4 (7), 10 Nov 2005

For example, Krieger et al [ 4 ] found in their analysis of cancer incidence and mortality in Massachusetts and Rhode Island that significant findings were lost when the analyses were conducted with areal units larger than the census tract.

M Norman Oliver et al.

International Journal of Health Geographics 4 (7), 10 Nov 2005

Gregorio et al [ 23 ], however, found in their cluster analysis of incident prostate and breast cancer cases in Connecticut that there were few differences in results across areal units, and there was no compelling need in typical cancer surveillance studies to prepare data at areas finer than the census tract.

M Norman Oliver et al.

International Journal of Health Geographics 4 (7), 10 Nov 2005

Conclusion In the absence of conditions calling for surveillance of small area cancer clusters ('hot spots'), the rationale for accepting the burdens of preparing data at levels of geography finer than the census tract may not be compelling.

David I Gregorio et al.

International Journal of Health Geographics 4 (7), 23 Mrz 2005

Krieger et al. , examining all-cause and selected cause-specific mortality and cancer incidence rates across Massachusetts and Rhode Island, found analyses by block group and census tract performed comparably [ 20 ], although tract-level analyses were found to offer greater linkage to area-based socio-economic indicators [ 21 ].

David I Gregorio et al.

International Journal of Health Geographics 4 (7), 23 Mrz 2005

Sheehan et al . reported few differences for town, zip code or census tract-level analyses of breast cancer incidence across Massachusetts, but noted case counts fluctuated due to various geocoding problems [ 22 ].

David I Gregorio et al.

International Journal of Health Geographics 4 (7), 23 Mrz 2005

Initially, we utilized geographically referenced data furnished us by the CT Tumor Registry to consider differences of incidence and late stage cases according to town and census tract.

David I Gregorio et al.

International Journal of Health Geographics 4 (7), 23 Mrz 2005

Distances between the geographic coordinates of clusters identified for block group-level analyses (reference) and those by town, census tract or individual case coordinates are noted.

David I Gregorio et al.

International Journal of Health Geographics 4 (7), 23 Mrz 2005

While only 11.4 percent of patients did not receive surgical treatment (lung resection), this proportion increased with rising age and was higher among patients who resided in a census tract in the highest poverty-rate quintile, were black, not married and had one or more selected comorbid conditions.

A. P. Polednak

The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine 74 (5), 2001

Some analysts then use the postal code to assign information to the cases from finer-level geographies such as a census tract.

Kevin A Henry et al.

International Journal of Health Geographics 7 (7), 23 Jan 2008

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